Here I come with yet another post about the DNIe. In the previous posts, we have seen how the device authentication procedure works and how to use the resulting keys to perform secure messaging. Now it's time to see how to ask the device to perform a hash on the input data and how to perform electronic signatures on it.
I'll start off with the description of the standard and continue with an explanation on how the DNIe drivers do it. Yes, you are reading it right, they use different APDUs than the ones defined in CWA14890, at least in the OpenSC module I'm using as a base for this analysis.
Let's go a little further in our way to understand the way the DNIe works. In my previous post I talked about the device authentication procedure and today I'll talk about what happens next, how Secure Messaging protects all the subsequent communication.
By the way, I updated the previous post with information on how to get the card's serial number.
Device authentication, quick reminder
As I said in the previous blog, the device authentication phase consists of the following steps:
- Certificate exchange: The terminal (IFD) requests a X.509 certificate from the card and sends its own certificate and an intermediate CA's certificate to the card
- Internal authenticate: The IFD sends a random challenge to the card and requests it to authenticate itself. This is done with an RSA signature, which is then encrypted for the IFD, and includes a 32 byte random number known as Kicc.
- External authenticate: The terminal authenticates itself, requesting a challenge from the card and sending a signed and encrypted message to the card. Again, this message includes a 32 byte random number known as Kifd.
- Key generation: both ends generate a key for encryption and a key for authentication. This is done by XORing first the two random numbers, and computing then the SHA-1 hash of the result with a constant 1 appended for the encryption key and a constant 2 for the authentication (MAC) key.
So basically at the end of this process, both ends share a pair of keys that can be used for protecting the confidentiality and the integrity of subsequent messages.
Let's see how this is done.
For a long time I wanted to have the opportunity to analyze the Spanish electronic ID, known in Spain as the DNIe. Last Christmas I was finally able to get an appointment with the appropriate police station in Spain and could get my brand new DNIe. Over a few posts I'm going to tell you how I've been trying to understand what the device does without access to any confidential information whatsoever, using information freely available on the Internet and analyzing communication logs between my PC and my DNIe.
The DNIe is a smart card implementing an E-SIGN application. This application is specified by the CWA-14890 documents (where CWA means CEN Workshop Agreement, and CEN means European Committee for Standardization ) and provides an interoperable framework for secure signature devices.
These devices are designed to be used for electronic signatures, and in the Spanish case it has replaced the identity document we have used for many years. It is an ISO 7816 compliant smart card, with (afaik) a custom operating system. The IC has received an EAL5+ Common Criteria certificate issued by the French scheme, while the ICC has been certified by the Spanish scheme and has obtained EAL4+.
This is all public documentation you can find on the Internet:
- EAL5+ CC certificate for the ST19WL34A issued by Serma Technologies in 2005.
- EAL4+ CC certificate for the DNIe OS issued by the CCN.
- ESIGN specifications: CWA14890-1 and CWA14890-2.
These documents show the Common Criteria certificates for the chip and the card, and the specifications of the protocol followed by the card.
Further, the Spanish Administration provides an OpenSC library in binary form, that one can use for communicating with the cards in Linux an Mac OS X. They also provide a CSP for Microsoft Windows. In the remainder of this post I'll explain my attempts at understanding how the device and the protocol work.
Everything has been done with consumer equipment on an Ubuntu 9.10 computer and using public documentation, thus everyone holding an actual DNIe should be able to reproduce these steps. Let's try to understand the details about this thing and how it communicates with our PC. We will start with the Device Authentication phase, which is the first thing that takes place when you use your eID.
Let me remind once again that I do not have access to any confidential information related to the DNIe, and therefore this is all public information. Also, I've done this analysis on my own free time sitting at home and using publicly available tools and a PCSC reader obtained from Tractis.