Let's go back into Cryptography. This time I'll tell you how the (in)famous Crypto1 cipher works. It is used in the Mifare Classic RFID tags, typically used for building access control but also for many other systems such as the Oyster Card in London, the OV-Chipkaar in The Netherlands, etc.
We won't talk about the protocol details, nor about how the published attacks work. You'll find a couple of interesting links at the end though ;-).
Note: Images obtained from the papers linked at the end of the post.
The Crypto1 cipher
Crypto1 is a proprietary stream chiper from NXP found in the RFID tags from the Mifare Classic family. At first, it was studied by Karsten Nohl reverse engineering the chip itself. This information was published in the CCC 07, although not many details about the cipher were published.
In parallel, the Radboud Universiteit from Nijmegen was studying this kind of cards and with the help of the information published at CCC completely reverse engineered the cipher and published the details. Let's see how it works then...